Rabu, 22 Desember 2010

makalah bahasa inggris


Praise be to Allah, who was give us healthy until finish a paper under the title ”Language uses”, which in content has a linguistic enquiry in Esp. Description of speech as and genres. It is also seen in attempts made to identify
We can hope this paper have a function for us specially for a reader to add his knowledge about how to uses language in teaching.



Table Of Content
A. Background
B. Formulation of problem
C. Purpose

A. Speech acts
A.I. Definition of speech acts.
A.II. Kind of speech acts.
A.III. Research speech acts in ESP
A.IV. Application speech acts in ESP
B. Genre
B.I. Definition of genre



A. Backgroud

B. Formula Of Problem
1. What the mean of speech act ?
2. How to applicate speech act in esp.

C. Purpose
1. In order to know the mean of speech act
2. In order to know how to applicate speech act in esp.

Language Uses

A. Speech Acts
Speech acts descriptions are concerned with

Language Use

Speech act is descriptions are concerned with the communicative intonations of individual speakers or writers and are defined by purpose for which the speaker uses the language:
Example : - to make a request
- to apologize
- and to report
Speech acts are a key concept in the field of pragmatics, the study of speaker intent and what speakers mean when they use a particular linguistic in context (hatch, 1992).
Austin’s ideas about language are presented in the book of lecture notes entitled Austin was interested in the fact that people do not use.
A speech act is an act that as speaker performs when making an utterance, including the following:
• General act (illocutionary act) that a speaker performs, analyzable as including :
- The uttering of word (utterance act)
- Making reference and predicate (proportional acts) and
- A particular intention in making the utterance (illocutionary force)
• An act involved in the illocutionary act, including utterance acts and proportional acts.
• The production of a particular effect in the addresses (Perlocutionary act).
Here are some kind of speech:
1. Illocutionary act
2. Perlocutionary act
3. Proportional act
4. Utterance act

I. Illocutionary
Illocutionary act is a complete speech act, made in a typical utterance, that consist of.
• The delivery of the proportional content of the utterance (including references and predicate). And
• A particular illocutionary force, whereby the speaker.
- asserts
- suggest
- demands
- promises and
- vows

The kind of illocutionary there are
a. command
b. complex
c. defective illocutionary act
d. direct
e. Elementary illocutionary act
f. Exclamation
g. Indirect illocution
h. Non defective illocutionary act
i. Question
j. Statement

a. A command
A command is an illocutionary act that has the directive illocutionary point of Getty another to do or not do something.
Example : - Turn of the radio, please
- Would you turn of the radio ?

b. Complex illocutionary act
Complex illocutionary act is an illocutionary act that has a negated illocutionary force, is performed conditionally or is conjoined with another illocutionary act.
- The kind of complex illocutionary act
- Conjunctive illocutionary act.
- Illocutionary conditional
- Illocutionary denegation
c. Detective illocutionary act
A detective illocutionary act is an illocutionary act, whet her successful or the preparatory or sincerity conditions for the are not met.
Example :
- The utterance pass the sell in a situation in which only the
d. Direct illocutionary
A direct illocutionary is an illocutionary act in which only the illocutionary force and propos ional content literally expressed by the lexical items and syntactic form of the utterance are communicated.
e. Elementary illocutionary act
An elementary illocutionary act is an illocutionary act that does not have a negated illocutionary force, is not performed conditionally and is not conjoined to another illocutionary act.
f. Exclamation
Here are two sense for exclamation
- An exclamation, broadly defined, exclamation utterance made with strong emotion.
- An exclamation, narrowly defined, is a sentence type that is used to express a strong emotional state. It contrasts in syntax or morphology with other sentence types which typically express statements, command, and questions.
Example: What a hot summer it was !

g. Indirect illocutionary
Indirect illocutionary an illocutionary act in which the speaker expresses another illocutionary force other than that literally expressed in the utterance.
For instance say “Peter, can you open the window?” thereby asking peter whether he will be able to open the window. But also requesting that he do so.
h. Noun defective illocutionary act
A non defective illocutionary act is an illocutionary act for which all the presuppositions of the propositional content conditions, preparatory conditions and sincerity conditions are satisfied.
i. Question
A question is a sentence type that has a form (labeled interrogative) typically used to express an illocutionary act with the directive illocutionary point mentioned above. It my be actually so used (as a direct illocution), or used rhetorically.
Example :
- What’s your name ?
- Did you sleep well ?
Kind of question
- alternative question
- a tag question

A perlocutionary act is a speech act that produces an effect, intended or not, achieved in an addresses by a speaker’s utterance.
Here are some kind of perlocutionary acts:
- Persuading
- Convincing
- Scaring
- Insulting
- Getting to addresses to do something

A proportional act is a speech act that a speaker performs when referring or predicating in an utterance.
The following utterances all have same proposition act despite their different illocutionary acts, utterance acts and perlocutionary act.
- You go home
- Do you home ?
- Go home !
- How I wish you’d go home !

An utterance acts is a speech consist of the verbal employment of units of expression as word and sentences.
Getting a glass of water is an action, asking someone else to get you one is also an act. When we speak, our words do not meaning in and of themselves. There are very affected by the situation, the speaker and the listener. Thus word alone do not have a simple fixed meaning.
- Illocutionary act : saying something (the locution) with a certain meaning in traditional sense. This may not constitute a speech act.
- Illocutionary act : the performance of an act saying something. The illocutionary force is the speaker’s intent. A true “speech act” e,g. informing, ordering, warning, undertaking.
- Perlocutionary acts : speech act that have an effect on the feeling, thoughts or actions of either the speaker or the listener. Unlike illocutionary acts. External to the performance.
e.g. inspiring. Persuading or deterring
hatch (1992) explains that following Austin, Searle (1969) classified utterance into a small set of functions. The set included / fives point.
1. Directives : Attempts by the speaker to get the hearer to do something.
E.g. Promising, asking and insisting
2. COM missives : commitment by the speaker to do something
E.g. promising, offering, and sheathing
3. Representatives : Commitments by the speaker to the truth of something, statement may be judged true of false because they aim to describe a state of affairs in the world.
E.g. Reporting, denying. and believing
4. Declaratives : act that bring about a new state of affair and I resign.
5. and Expressive : acts indicating the speaker attitude to something, for example, liking, welcome, and aphorizing.

There is a considerable body of research showing that non-native speakers differ from native speaker in their use of speech acts.
- Non-native speakers can differ in choice of speech acts.
- Investigation of students use of speech acts in authentic academic advising sessions than non-native speakers and non-native speakers used more rejecting acts.
- The research shows that native and non-native speakers can differ in the choice of semantic formulas they use when making speech acts.
- (Bardovi – Harling (2001) report that research into academic advising sessions revealed that native speakers ranked the use of alternatives as the second most preferred strategy to reject suggestions made by an advisor.
- Grand all (1999) investigated the use of speech acts by native and non-native speaker in academic settings. Part of the study had a socio pragmatic focus as it included investigation of whether the native and non-native speaker. Student approached the faculty directly or indirectly when making their request, findings revealed some differences. For, example, only one of the non-native speakers used direct request, compared to seven of the eleven native speakers to make recorded. The non-native speakers used more hints than native speakers to make similar request, such as to ask for helf with an assignment. One non-native speaker requesting a grade change hints.

Ideas about speech acts underpin functional syllabuses.
Two broad types of speech acts. (functions) addressed in these syllabuses are:
1. acts typically but not exclusively found in speaking.
Example : making suggestions and complimenting
2. acts typically but not exclusively found in written language use
Example : defining and classifying)

Part of the rationale for speech act based and pragmatics based teaching derivers form observations by language teacher of the lack of correlations between student’s knowledge of language systems and ability to communication with other.

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